Cybercrime: Definition, Characteristics, Types, and Causative Factors.
The increasingly advanced state of technology has opened the door to higher and more complex levels of cybercrime. Cybercrime, often referred to as cyber crime, is now a pressing issue on a global scale. It is no longer just a local issue; it has become a global problem that requires collective action from various countries to address this threat.
Cybercrime is a criminal act that utilizes electronic devices and internet connections to carry out malicious actions that can cross the borders of a country within a very short time. In today’s technological development, the definition of cybercrime has evolved. According to Tavani, cybercrime is a criminal act that can only be committed using cyber technology and occurs in the virtual world. On the other hand, Indra Safitri defines cybercrime as a type of crime related to the unlimited use of information technology, with a strong emphasis on technology engineering that relies on high levels of security and credibility of information delivered and accessed by internet users.
Characteristics of Cybercrime
In general, cybercrime is a type of crime that uses computer technology based on the internet. This crime has unique characteristics, including:
1. Global Nature and Often Crosses National Borders
Cybercrime is often committed transnationally, making it difficult to detect and determine the applicable legal jurisdiction. This complicates law enforcement efforts.
2. Not Causing Easily Visible Chaos
Cybercrime often does not result in easily visible physical damage. Nevertheless, its impact can be far more damaging than conventional crime, especially in terms of financial losses and information theft.
3. Universal Perpetrators of Cybercrime
There are no age or geographical restrictions to becoming a cybercriminal. Even children and teenagers can be involved in these crimes.
4. Use of Technology Incomprehensible to Non-Experts
Cybercrime often leverages technology that is not easily understood by individuals who are not proficient in the cyber world. This makes law enforcement and network protection tasks increasingly complicated.
5. Material and Non-Material Loss Impacts
Cybercrime can lead to financial losses, such as theft of money and non-material losses, such as the loss of confidential information, privacy, and the dignity of individuals or companies.
Types of Cybercrime
Cybercrime has become an increasingly pressing issue in the current era of digital technology. Various types of cybercrimes continue to evolve and threaten the integrity and security of the virtual world. In this article, we will review various types of cybercrimes that need to be understood.
1. Unauthorized Access
This type of crime occurs when someone accesses a computer network system without permission or knowledge of the owner. This action violates the privacy and data integrity within that system.
2. Illegal Content
This crime is related to the dissemination of data or information that is illegal, unethical, or violates the law through the internet. Examples include the distribution of pornography or false information.
3. Malware Distribution with Malicious Intent
Malware distribution usually occurs through seemingly harmless emails. Recipients often do not realize that the message they received contains viruses that can damage their computer systems.
4. Data Forgery
This cybercrime is committed with the intention of falsifying data found in important documents on the internet. Such documents are often held by institutions or agencies that store online databases.
5. Cyber Espionage, Sabotage, and Extortion
Cyber espionage involves spying on individuals or other entities by hacking into their computer network systems. Cyber sabotage and extortion involve efforts to damage or destroy data, programs, or computer network systems of the target.
This cybercrime includes actions that harass or annoy someone through the internet. It is similar to harassment and stalking, such as sending disturbing messages to the victim’s email repeatedly.
Carding is an attempt to steal individuals’ credit card numbers with the goal of conducting illegal transactions on the internet. Perpetrators often send fake websites that, once opened, can spread viruses to the victim’s devices. This allows perpetrators to start carding.
Causal Factors of Cybercrime
Several factors contribute to the increasing occurrence of cybercrime:
1. Unlimited Internet Access
The easy access to the internet by everyone has allowed criminals to operate unhindered. Unlimited access allows people to easily access various information and resources, which can be exploited by criminals.
2. User Negligence
Many people often store their important data online without paying attention to security. This provides opportunities for criminals to access and steal personal or business information.
3. Ease of Execution and Uncomplicated Equipment
Cybercrime is often committed with relatively low security risks and without the need for expensive or sophisticated equipment. The internet is an easily used medium that doesn’t require significant investment in specialized tools.
4. Weaknesses in Network Security Systems
Network security systems often do not receive sufficient attention. Weaknesses in network security systems can serve as entry points for cybercriminals. Strengthening network security systems is key to addressing cybercrime.
In an increasingly interconnected world, collective efforts to protect cybersecurity are critical. Cybercrime, with all its characteristics and types, has become a global threat that crosses national borders and can cause financial and non-material damage. Therefore, awareness of risks and preventive actions must be heightened. Internet users need to be more cautious with their personal information, while companies and governments must continually strengthen their cybersecurity systems. Only through global collaboration can we address the increasingly complex cybercrime threats and protect the virtual world.
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